Decorative stones belong to one of the groups of igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rocks and include marble, marble, porcelain, conglomerate, travertine, sandstone, granite, diorite, syenite, gabbro and some less important Are wet.
1- Physical properties of decorative stones Types of decorative stones are known by their physical properties. These characteristics are mainly: Hardness of stone The range of hardness of decorative stones is very large. This range ranges from the lowest hardness (talc) to the highest hardness (granite, which is even harder than steel). Hardness affects the cost of the stone. Generally, the harder the stone, the more time and money it will take to extract, cut and polish its parts. The color of the stone Colors each give a special beauty and effect to objects, and certainly human beings in their choice, in addition to strength, properties and ease of use, also pays special attention to appearance. The buildings add to the beauty of the city due to the color of their exterior. In this regard, light colors are usually superior to dark and opaque colors. It goes without saying that the exterior color of buildings, which is due to the type of materials used (stone or non-stone), is itself affected by atmospheric factors. Rainwater can chemically affect existing minerals and change its color. The degree of porosity Porosity is increased by the infiltration of rainwater into the rock cavities (these cavities themselves are often caused by the chemical action of natural solutions on some of the minerals in the rock) and its freezing. In zero-degree winter weather, water that penetrates into the pores of the rock (or sometimes the back of the façade) freezes, causing large cracks to form in the rock. These cracks gradually increase until they cause all or part of the facade stone to fall. Stone resistance The strength of the rock is constantly changing under the influence of various factors such as weathering, cold, heat and fire. Also, the factors related to weathering are sometimes chemical. These factors can be gases such as SO2, O2 and CO2. In cities where the presence of such gases is abundant in the air. Facade stones lose their strength more under their influence. Some weathering factors (such as freezing and thawing of water inside rock cavities, decolorization properties and the heat effect of sunlight) physically affect the rock. It should be noted that chemical and physical weathering agents work together and often cause discoloration, breakage and separation of stone from the building. It is added that limestone in areas with high rainfall and excessive carbon dioxide in the space, is not very suitable for the exterior of buildings (especially travertines).
Marble stone ,The types of cut stones used for various purposes are as follows: Surface stone Dense limestones, sandstones, colored marbles, volcanic tuffs, granite, syenite, diorite, labradorite, gabbro, basalt, and other rocks that are compatible with building conditions. Stone used in walls Lime, dolomite, sandstones, gypsum, volcanic tuffs. Stone facade inside the building Polishing mortars, gypsum, tuff, cutting, conglomerates with carbonate cement Stones used for special industrial purposes are classified as follows: Heat resistant stones Soapstone (talc, talc schist), tuff, andesite, basalt, diabase. Acid-resistant rocks Granite, diorite, quartzite, silica sandstones, andesite, trachite, basalt, diabase, felsite. Alkaline resistant stones Dense limestones, dolomite, magnesite, calcareous sandstones. Stones used for external stairs of the building Marble stone, granite, labradorite.
2- Scientific classification of types of decorative stones and facades Suitable stones for the production of facade and decorative stones are classified under the following general headings: A- Sedimentary rocks Conglomerates and sandstones Conglomerates can be used as very interesting decorative stones if they are in a thick layer and completely cemented. If the elements of the conglomerates are made of limestone and their cement background is also calcareous and there is a good contrast between the color of the parts and the background cement, such conglomerates will be more ideal. If the main elements of these stones have different qualities and properties (for example, some elements are siliceous and some are calcareous, or the constituent elements are siliceous and the background or limestone cement), the cutting operation will face problems. Sandstones can also be used as a building stone if they are thick layered and their elements are calcareous or completely cemented to each other by calcareous cement. Such stones are especially used in the form of malone. Limestone or dolomite Limestone is the main building and decorative stones. Their salient features, in short, are: good hardness, high ability to sub and cut, variety of colors, good resistance, easy extraction. Travertine Travertines are the product of old limestone springs. Among them, white travertines with colored veins and uniform pores are of higher quality. Cream-colored travertines, which are due to the presence of scattered pigments of iron oxide in the text of the stone, are of lower quality. Colored travertines that are red, walnut, li, depending on the percentage of contamination with iron oxide pigments Hair, etc., and have roles that are due to differences in the amount of iron oxide pollution in different layers of travertine, have a very beautiful and attractive appearance. In general, in global markets, colored travertines have a reasonable price and market in the current situation. Travertine due to its acceptable strength, ideal cutting and polishing, ideal extraction conditions, beauty of appearance, porosity to stick Complete with mortar and especially cheaper than other stones, it is one of the most widely used building stones.
Marble Marble stone, like travertine, are formed as a result of the operation of limestone hot springs. Marble is usually found in layers between layers of travertine. In the process of operation of hot springs, if the temperature drop is slow, aragonite is formed and if the temperature drop is sharp, travertine is formed. In Iran, a stone made from aragonite is called marble, which is the brand name of its colored types, Enix.Marble contains green, lemon, yellow, etc. colors that look like a luxurious decorative stone after wear. * Major areas of use of marble are luxury wall coverings, interior decoration of buildings, sculpture and stone tables. B- igneous rocks Granite Granites stone are among the igneous stones that have been introduced in the world markets in recent decades as a luxury and expensive decorative stone. These types of stones are important in terms of high hardness, transparency and stunning beauty. Granites stone that do not have the effects of alteration and are not affected by tectonic phenomena, especially micro-tectonic, and also have the necessary attractiveness in terms of color, are considered as decorative stones and facades. It should be noted that the cutting and abrasion of granite stones is much more difficult and costly compared to limestone, so that only special discs and sub-stones can cut and abrade them. Bright, red and pink granites , Are very valuable because of their color. . Riolites If the rhyolites have a relatively lower percentage of quartz and pink potash feldspars are seen in them, they will be more desirable and will have a beautiful pink appearance. In general, non-alter ryolites are less common. Special igneous rocks Facade rocks of special igneous type can be synites, diorites, gabbro and their equivalent outcrops, ie trachites, andesites, and basalts, as well as other rocks such as nepheline syenites, peridotites, pyroxenites, amphibolites and others. Igneous stones are of this type. These types of stones can be considered as special decorative stones if they are completely fresh and have not changed and at the same time show beautiful colors in the polished section. C- Metamorphic rocks Marble stone and gneiss are two types of metamorphic stones that are suitable for use as a decorative stone and facade.
marble stone Marble stone in the form of white, gray and colored metamorphic stones, with recrystallization, have a special radiance and transparency. These types of stones, which are derived from the metamorphism of early limestones, may form different decorative stones with different names and textures, small and large, depending on the degree of metamorphism and the growth of the crystals. Coarse crystal, white or light gray to cream marble is called "porcelain stone". Tang Hana porcelain mines (Neyriz-Fars province), Najafabad, Aligudarz crystal and porcelain and Lai Bid and Godar Sorkh Moteh area are some of the famous porcelain mines in Iran. The upper ten mine of Yazd is one of the famous mines of fine crystal marble in genises Gneisses, like granites, can form exceptional decorative stones if they have ideal colors and coarse elements and no alteration effects, due to the beautiful eye texture that can be seen in the polished sections of some of them. The available stones were mostly used as ore as a covering and interior facade and floor of some buildings, especially mosques and holy places. But in the following years, in addition to marble, the use of travertine and marble and finally igneous stones such as granite and syenite has become common in the exterior of buildings. The use of stone in the interior and exterior of buildings past the beauty of appearance, increases the strength and durability of buildings, increases the life of buildings and contributes to the environmental health of building occupants.